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Types of Behavior Under Muslim (Sharia) Law

Category of Behavior (in Arabic)
Meaning
Punishment/Reward (in this life and/or in the “hereafter”
Examples of Behavior (may vary from place to place)
Fardh Required actions that must be done Doing is rewarded; not doing is punished Praying five times a day; men supporting their families
Mandub Recommended or desirable Doing is rewarded; no punishment for not doing Extra prayer and fasting; keeping written records of debts
Mubah Allowed Not rewarded or punished Eating apples; drinking Coca-Cola; using the internet for decent purposes
Makruh Not recommended; hated, but not forbidden No punishment for doing; not doing is rewarded Divorce; growing long fingernails; proposing marriage to someone who is already married
Haram Forbidden Punishment for doing; not doing is rewarded Stealing; lying; drinking alcohol; eating pork; men wearing gold jewelry; attending a prom